Terms & Definitions S-Z

Sector Identification: level of renewable energy installation ranging from an individual home or small commercial-office building to municipalities.

SGEMP:  System Generated EMP: When gamma and x-rays from a high altitude detonation encounter a satellite in space they excite and release electrons as they penetrate the interior of the system. This phenomena is referred to as system generated electromagnetic pulse (SGEMP) because the accelerated electrons create electromagnetic transients. Systems must be configured with special cables, aperture protection, grounding, and insulating materials in order to survive these transients.

SGEMP impacts space system electronics in three ways. First, x-rays arriving at the spacecraft skin cause an accumulation of electrons there. The electron charge, which is not uniformly distributed on the skin, causes current to flow on the outside of the system. These currents can penetrate into the interior through various apertures, as well as into and through the solar cell power transmission system. Secondly, x-rays can also penetrate the skin to produce electrons on the interior walls of the various compartments. The resulting interior electron currents generate cavity electromagnetic fields that induce voltages on the associated electronics which produce spurious currents that can cause upset or burnout of these systems. Finally, x-rays can produce electrons that find their way directly into signal and power cables to cause extraneous cable currents. These currents are also propagated through the satellite wiring harness.

Shell Company: a public corporation which has discontinued its business but holds cash in its treasury hoping to be acquired by an attractive,  growing private company in order to go public.

Shipping Container Homes: Used and otherwise large (8 ft w. x 8.5 ft h. x 10, 20, 24, and 40 ft. long containers left over from unloaded shipping cargo. Some manufacturers have converted them into storage sheds and livable houses. 
SID, See Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance 
Smart Grid: Electric grid stake-holders have identified the following characteristics or performance features of a smart grid:
● Self-healing from power disturbance events (except EMP)
● Enabling active participation by consumers in demand response 
● Operating resiliently against physical and cyber-attack (Questionable)
● Providing power quality for 21st century needs (Questionable)
● Accommodating all generation and storage options 
● Enabling new products, services, and markets 
● Optimizing assets and operating efficiently (Questionable)

Solar: Energy from the sun shining on collectors whose elevated temperature is used to heat water for pools, hot-water heaters, and other applications.

Solar-Earth Seasons: Since the earth is tilted on an 23.5o axis as it rotates around the sun in a year, four seasons are developed which greatly impact the efficiencies of solar installations. The seasons begin:
● Vernal Equinox, 21 March = day and night of equal length. Sunrise = location latitude 
● Summer Solstice, 21 June = longest daylight of the year. Sunrise = location latitude + 23.5o
● Autumnal Equinox, 21 Sept. = day and night of equal length
Sunrise = location latitude 
● Winter Solstice, 21 December = shortest daylight of the year. 
Sunrise = location latitude - 23.5o

Solar Energy:  Heat and light radiated from the sun.

Solar Flares: the eruption from active sunspots which produce excess radiation during the solar 11-year sun-spot cycle. Among other disturbances, they impact ionospheric propagation which can disrupt communications, especially in the HF-VHF (3 MHz – 300 MHz) spectrum.
A solar flare is a sudden brightening observed over the Sun's surface or the solar limb, which is interpreted as a large energy release They are often followed by a colossal coronal mass ejection also known as a Corona Mass Ejections (CME). The flare ejects clouds of electrons, ions, and atoms through the corona into space. These clouds typically reach Earth a day or two after the event.
Solar flares affect all layers of the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromo-sphere, and), when the medium plasma is heated to tens of millions of corona and electrons, protons, and heavier ionisphsare accelerated to near the speed of light. They produce radiation across the electromagnetic spectrumat all wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays, although most of the energy exists at frequencies outside the visual range. For this reason the majority of the flares are not visible to the naked eye and must be observed with special instruments.
The frequency of occurrence of solar flares varies, from several per day when the Sun is particularly "active" to less than one every week when the Sun is "quiet", following the 11-year solar cycle. Large flares are less frequent than smaller ones.
Strong solar flares can happen at any time, but are more common during the peak half of the 11-year sunspot cycle, can cause wide regional blackouts to the electric grid. Since they are a very low frequency phenomena, long high-voltage, electric power lines act as pick-up antennas resulting in the possible burnout of transformers at substations since transformers are not designed to handle the very low frequency (nearly DC) currents induced in the windings.
Solar, First Generation: Crystalline Silicon solar represents the most popular with about 85% of the solar installations as of 2010. It is the most expensive and about 20% efficient in converting sunlight into electricity. It is the oldest of the technologies and, typically, has a 25 year guarantee and a 40+ year life expectancy.

Solar Panel:  Devices that collect energy from the sun (solar energy). This is usually solar photovoltaic (PV) modules that use solar cells to convert light from the sun into electricity, or solar thermal (heat) collectors that use the sun's energy to heat water or another fluid such as oil or antifreeze.

Solar-P: Energy from the sun shining on cells converted to DC electricity by photovoltaic action. Through inverters, this is then converted to AC electricity for driving electrical loads.

Solar Resource:  The amount of solar insulation a site receives, usually measured in kWh/m2/day, which is equivalent to the number of peak sun hours.

Solar, Second Generation, Thin-Film solar is made from amorphous silicon (the least favorable) or popular cadmium tellurium (CdTe) or CIGS in thickness less than a human hair, but mostly formed into rigid, glass-covered panels. Efficiencies are about 11%, but reader beware as this is not the correct measure of better performance (see below).

Solar, Third Generation, Inks and Dyes: mostly in experimental stages and a few to several years away from practical, competitive installations.

Solar Thermal: The process of concentrating sunlight to create high temperatures that are needed to heat fluids, like water (solar hot water) or to vaporize fluid to drive a turbine for electric power generation.

Solar Water Heating: Using the sun's rays to heat an absorber material which transfers the increased temperature to buried pipes carrying water.
Every solar water-heating system features a solar collector that faces the sun to absorb the sun's heat energy. This collector can either heat water directly or heat a "working fluid" that's then used to heat the water. In active solar water-heating systems, a pumping mechanism moves heated water through the building. In passive solar water-heating systems, the water moves by natural convection. In almost all cases, solar water-heating systems work in tandem with conventional gas or electric water-heating systems; the conventional systems operate as needed (night or overcast days) to ensure a reliable supply of heated water. 

Stand-Alone System:  An autonomous or hybrid photovoltaic system not connected to a grid. May or may not have storage, but most stand-alone systems require batteries or some other form of storage.

Storage: Storage refers to saving surplus electricity produced by a photo-voltaic (PV) system. Generally, batteries are used as storage devices.

String:  A number of photovoltaic modules or panels interconnected electrically in series to produce the operating voltage required by the load.

Sudden ionospheric disturbance (SID):  an abnormally high ionization/-plasma density in the D region of the iosisphere caused by a solar flare. The SID results in a sudden increase in radio-wave absorption that is most severe in the upper medium frequency (MF) and lower high frequency(HF) ranges, and as a result often interrupts or interferes with telecommunications systems.

When a solar flare occurs on the sun, a blast of intense ultraviolet and x-ray radiation hits the dayside of the Earth after a propagation time of about 8 minutes. This high energy radiation is absorbed by atmospheric particles, raising them to excited states and knocking electrons free in the process of photo-ionization. The low altitude ionospheric layers (D Region and E region) immediately increase in density over the entire dayside. The ionospheric disturbance enhances VLF radio propagation. Scientists on the ground can use this enhancement to detect solar flares; by monitoring the signal strength of a distant VLF transmitter, sudden ionospheric disturbances (SIDs) are recorded and indicate when solar flares have taken place.
Short wave radio waves (in the HF range) are absorbed by the increased particles in the low altitude ionosphere causing a complete blackout of radio communications. This is called a short-wave fading. These fadeouts last for a few minutes to a few hours and are most severe in the equatorial regions where the Sun is most directly overhead. The ionospheric disturbance enhances long wave (VLF) radio propagation. SIDs are observed and recorded by monitoring the signal strength of a distant VLF transmitter.
Equipment: Structure that houses PV modules and that can automatically follow the sun across the sky throughout the day to maximize output.


Utility: The interconnection of electricity generation plants through the transmission and distribution lines to customers. The grid also refers to the interconnection of utilities through the electric transmission and distribution systems.


Volt (V): The amount of force required to drive a steady current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm. Electrical systems of most homes and offices use 120 volts. (volts - watts/amps) (volts = amperes x resistance)


Water tower: A structure desined to hold 10,000 or more gallons of water in height above local consumers in order that a pressure exists at the tap to supply drinking water or to permit flushing toilets since pressure supply utilities may be dysfunctional or damaged.

Watt (W): Electric measurement of power at one point in time, as capacity or demand. For example, light bulbs are classified by wattage. (1,000 watts = 1 kilowatt).

Waveguide beyond cutoff:  A condition in waveguides (or any other metal tube including air vents), when a frequency from a potential interfering source, fEMI, somewhat below that corresponding to a half wavelength (of the waveguide or tube), propagates with significant, but predictable attenuation. 
A first approximation of the attenuation is, Adb = 30 l/d, where l = tube length and d = tube diameter or width. To assure 80 dB shield attenuation, used several places in this book, make l/w greater than 3. 
(for details and exact equation, see, The EMC, Telecom and Computer Encyclopedia Handbook, third edition, by Don White, emf-emi control, 1999.) 

Wind Turbine: is a rotating machine which converts the kinetic energy in wind into mechanical energy. This is then converted to electricity via a turbine or generator.

Terms & Definitions H-R

HEMP: A High altitude Electro-magnetic Pulse generated from an upper atmospheric nuclear explo-sion. In military terminology, HEMP results from is a nuclear warhead detonated hundreds of kilometers above the Earth's surface. Effects of a HEMP device depend on a large number of factors, including the altitude of the detonation, energy yield, gamma-ray output, interac-tions with the earth's magnetic field, and electromagnetic shielding and protection of targets. 

HEMP is usually described in terms of three components defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission, called E1, E2, and E3:
The E1 pulse is the very fast component of nuclear EMP. It is a brief but intense electromagnetic field that can quickly induce very high voltages in electrical conductors. The E1 component causes most of its damage by causing electrical breakdown voltages to be exceeded. E1 is the component that can destroy computers and communications equipment and it changes too quickly for ordinary lightning protectors to provide effective protection.

The E2 component is generated by scattered gamma rays and inelastic gammas produced by weapon neutrons. This E2 component is an "intermediate time" pulse that lasts from about 1 microsecond to 1 second after the beginning of the electromagnetic pulse. The E2 component of the pulse has many similarities to the EMP produced by lightning, although the electromagnetic pulse induced by a nearby lightning strike may be considerably larger than the E2 component of a nuclear EMP. Because of the similarities to lightning-caused pulses and the widespread use of lightning protection technology, the E2 pulse is generally considered to be the easiest to protect against.

The E3 component is very different from the other two major compo-nents of nuclear EMP. The E3 is a slow pulse, lasting tens to hundreds of seconds, that is caused by the nuclear detonation heaving the Earth's magnetic field out of the way, followed by the restoration of the mag-netic field to its natural place. The E3 component has similarities to a geo-magnetic stormflare. Like a geo-magnetic storm, E3 can produce geo-magnetically induced currents in long electrical conductors, which can then damage components such as power line transformers.
Because of the similarity between solar-induced geomagnetic storms and nuclear E3, it has become common to refer to solar-induced geomagnetic storms as "solar EMP." At ground level, however, "solar EMP" is not known to produce an E1 or E2 component. 
Hertz: The unit of electromagnetic frequency that is equal to one cycle per second.

Hydroelectric: Electric power generated by turbines driven from the fall, passage or head of water.
Insulation: The solar power density incident on a surface of stated area and orientation. It is commonly expressed as average irradiance in watts per square meter (W/m2) or kilowatt-hours per square meter per day (kWh/(m2/day)) (or hours/day). In the case of photovoltaics it is commonly measured as kWh/(kWy) (kilowatt hours per kilowatt year, peak rating)


Interconnection: The linkage of transmission lines between two util-ities, or between a utility and an end-user, enabling power to be moved in either direction.

Inverters: Electrical devices used to convert low DC voltage from solar-PV cells or panels to higher AC voltages for direct use in homes and non-residential buildings.

IPO: Initial Public Offering: The first time that a private company has gone public by selling its registered securities.

Irradiance: The direct, diffuse, and reflected solar radiation that strikes a surface. Usually expressed in kilowatts per square meter.

Isolate: An acronym for Solar bright days, Site Latitude, and electric utility rates. Isolate scores applied to each US state will give a first, quick-look, rough measure of the viability of a proposed or existing solar rooftop installation performance, yet independent of the installation specifics. There are three main parts contributing to overall solar system installation performance:

(1) Location = site latitude, % bright solar days, and 
electric utility rates

(2) Solar technology, mounting and roof configuration
Financial, prices, costs, subsidies, break even, P&L, cash flow and ROI.

Isolate score is a rough measure of the state site location in producing affordable solar energy. Its viability score is defined as:

  Isolate = Sol x e x cos(lat) x N (3)

where, N is a normalizing/scaling constant and cosine of the latitude, rather than latitude, per SE, is used because that is the way the physics of the math model works.

ITC = Investment Tax Credit: The Fed Gov. offers an ITC to companies and homeowners who install Renewable Energy devices to increase affordability by effectively lower the price. 


kilowatt (kW): 1,000 watts. A unit of measure of the amount of electricity needed to operate given equipment. For example, a one kW system is enough power to illuminate 10 light bulbs at 100 watts each. (volts x amps = watts). Or, a one kW system, if operating at full capacity for 5 hours will produce (or use) 5 kWh of electricity. 

kWh = kilowatt hour, an energy term = 1 kW of electric power for one hour or X kW for 1/X hours, or any combination of power and time, yielding 1 kWh.

Mat-dirt Runway: A low-cost. packed dirt runway covered with steel matting for endurance and erosion control. It is usually 4,000 ft, in length, enough to accommo-date a 70-ton payload, Globemaster III cargo aircraft. It is primarily used in a post-EMP era for vitals replenishment.

Maximum Power Point (MPP): The point on the current-voltage (I-V) curve of a module under illumination, where the product of current and voltage is maximum. For a typical silicon cell, this is at about 0.45 volts.

MegaWatt = 1 MW = 1,000,000 Watts = 106 watts.

Meter:  A device that measures
levels and volumes of customer's electricity use.

Million = 1,000,000 = 10^6

Moore's Law: A law of electronics technology made famous in an article in Electronics magazine in 1965 by Gordon L. Moore, who would later become the co-founder of Intel. Moore's law states that the number of transistors on an integrated circuit will double in less than 24 months, with corresponding decreases in the cost of electronics technology.

Mounting Equipment: Equipment/apparatus used to fasten solar (PV) modules to the roof. 

Multicrystalline: A semiconductor (photovoltaic) material composed of variously oriented, small, individual crystals. Sometimes referred to as polycrystalline or semicrystalline.


NAIC: North American Industry Classification System.

National Electrical Code (NEC): Contains guidelines for all types of electrical installations. The 1984 and later editions of the NEC contain Article 690, "Solar Photo-voltaic Systems" which should be followed when installing a PV system.

Net Metering: "Net Metering" is the metering of electricity consumed from the electric utility grid and conversely, exported to the grid (the meter runs backward when excess solar electricity is fed back) by a home or business (office building) 


One-Axis Tracking: A system capable of rotating about one axis used to track the sun's daily path in the sky.

Orientation:  Placement with respect to the cardinal directions, North, South, East, West. Azimuth is the measure of orientation from north.

Peak Load - The highest electrical demand within a particular period of time.

Peak Sun Hours:  The equivalent number of hours per day when solar irradiance averages 1,000 w/m2. For example, six peak sun hours means that the energy received during total daylight hours equals the energy that would have been received had the irradiance for six hours been 1,000 w/m2.

Photovoltaic Cell or Module or Panel: (PV) - A device that produces an electric reaction to light, thereby producing electricity.

Photovoltaic (PV) Array:  An interconnected system of PV modules that function as a single electricity-producing unit. The modules are assembled as a discrete structure, with common support or mounting. In smaller systems, an array can consist of a single module.

Photovoltaic (PV) Conversion Efficiency: The ratio of the electric power produced by a photovoltaic device to the power of the sunlight incident on the device.

Polycrystalline Silicon A material used to make photovoltaic cells, which consist of many crystals unlike single-crystal silicon.

Power Factor of an AC electric power system is the ratio of the real power flowing to the load to the apparent power (assuming voltage and current are in phase), and is a number between 0 and 1, expressed as a percentage. When PF < 1, the electric utility must send more apparent power, thus, charging more than consumed. Hence, correct the power factor to appx. 100% to save money.


Rainwater Harvesting: Collecting and storing rain from structure roofs or other collectors for reuse other than processed for drinking. 

Renewable Energy: Energy derived from that which will never run out, such as from wind, sun, rain, rivers, waterways, and heat from the earth, trees and vegetation. 

Replenishment: The distance and time it tskes to replace exhausted or spent food, medications, fuel, broken or replaced parts, and other materials or parts to permit a continuing function of applicable buildings, devics, equipment, vehicles.

Revenue Streams: From product manufacturers and/ or service companies, on-going regular or periodic (e.g: monthly) sources and amounts of sales revenues.

● From carbon credits, such in “Cap and Trade” legislation 
● From making business deals with utility companies, clients, & banks
● Continuing local, national international seminars 
● Introducing new Trade publication(s) with paid ads. 
● From/for municipality clients
● Maintenance and post expiration guarantee services
● Special EMP-mitigation hardware protects clients from catastrophic vulnerability of national electric grid.

ROI = Return on Investment:
 Net moneys received above an invested sum. ROI = (total present value – original investment)/ (original investment).

Terms & Definitions A-I

Alternating Current (AC): The flow of electricity that constantly changes direction between positive and negative sides. Almost all power produced by electric utilities in the United States moves in current that shifts direction at a rate of 60 times per second.

Alternative Energy: Another name for renewable energy – alternative to fossil fuel (oil, gas and coal). Ambi-ent Temperature: The temperature of the surrounding area.

Amorphous Silicon: A thin-film, silicon photovoltaic cell having no crystalline structure. Manufactured by depositing layers of doped silicon on a substrate. See also single-crystal silicon an polycrystalline silicon.

Ampere (Amp): The unit of measure that indicates how much elec-tricity flows through a conductor. It is like using cubic feet per second to measure the flow of water. For example, a 1,200-watt, 120-volt hair dryer pulls 10 amperes of electric current (amps = watts/volts).
Ampere-Hour (Ah/AH): A measure of the flow of current (in amperes) over one hour; used to measure battery capacity.

Annual Solar Savings:  The annual solar savings of a solar building is the energy savings attributable to a solar feature relative to the energy requirements of a non-solar building.

Average Demand:  The energy demand for a given location over a period of time. For example, the number of kilowatt-hours used in a 24-hour period, divided by 24 hours, tells the average demand for that location in that time.

Avoided Cost:  The amount of money an electric utility would need to spend for the next increment of electric generation to produce or purchase.

Azimuth Angle:  The angle between true south and the point on the horizon directly below the sun.


Battery: Batteries are often sold with a solar electric system. The primary purpose is to store the electricity not immediately used, which could be used at some later time.
Billion: = 1,000,000,000 = 109 = 1,000 million

Biomass: a renewable energy source, biological material derived from living, or recently living, organisms, such as wood, waste, and alcohol fuels. Biomass is commonly plant matter grown to generate electricity or produce heat. 

BIPV (Building-Integrated Photovoltaics):  A term for the design and integration of photovoltaic (PV) technology into the building envelope, typically replacing conventional building materials. This integration may be in vertical facades, replacing view glass, spandrel glass, or other facade material; into semitransparent skylight systems; into roofing systems, replacing traditional roofing materials; into shading "eye-brows" over windows; or other building envelope systems.

BTU (British Thermal Unit): The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit; equal to 252 calories.

Cap and Trade: A central authority (usually a government) sets a limit or cap on the amount of a pollutant that can be emitted. Companies or other groups are issued emission permits and are required to hold an equivalent number of allowances (or credits) which represent the right to emit a specific amount. The total amount of allowances and credits cannot exceed the cap, limiting total emissions to that level. 

Companies that need to increase their emission allowance must buy credits from those who pollute less. The transfer of allowances is referred to as a trade. In effect, the buyer is paying a charge for polluting, while the seller is being rewarded for having reduced emissions by more than was needed. So, in theory, those who can easily reduce emissions (such as renewable energy producers) most cheaply will do so, achieving the pollution reduction at the lowest possible cost to society. The “Cap and Trade” is believed by many to create more damage than good.

Capacity Factor:  The ratio of the average load on (or power output of) an electricity generating unit or system to the capacity rating of the unit or system over a specified period of time.

CIGS = copper, indium, gallium, and selenium, thin film, solar semi-conductor used for 2nd generation solar panels

Circuit: One or more conductors through which electricity flows.
: A CSG is a solar power installation that accepts capital from and provides output credit and tax benefits to individual and other investors. In some systems you buy individual solar panels which are installed in the farm after your purchase. In others you purchase kW capacity or kWh of production. The farm's power output is credited to investors in proportion to their investment, with adjustments to reflect ongoing changes in capacity, technology, costs and electricity rates. Companies, cooperatives, governments or non-profits operate the farms.

Concentrator: A photovoltaic module, which includes optical components such as lenses (Fresnel lens) to direct and concentrate sunlight onto a solar cell of smaller area. Most arrays must directly face or track the sun. They can increase the power flux of sunlight hundreds of times.

Converter: An electrical apparatus that changes the quantity or quality of electrical energy.

Cottage Shed (EMP Protected): A small compressed, livable shed, with solar rooftop specially designed for an EMP escape community living. Some accommodate a vehicle and a golf cart for transportation. They are clustered for community vitals storage and week-end entertainment. They range in size from 8 ft x 16 ft up to 16 ft x 30 ft. and most cost less than $100/ sq. ft. including solar rooftop all EMP protected when built in a development.

Crystalline: Photovoltaic cells made from a slice of single-crystal silicon or polycrystalline silicon. CSP (concentrating solar power): is focused sunlight. CSP plants generate electric power by using mirrors to concentrate (focus) the sun's energy and convert it into high-temperature heat (or steam). That heat is then channeled through a conventional generator. The plants consist of two parts: one that collects solar energy and converts it to heat, and another that converts the heat energy to electricity. Within the United States, over 350 MW of CSP capacity exists and these plants have been operating reliably for more than 15 years.

Customer Load: The amount of power your site uses. Load may be expressed in kilowatts (capacity) or kilowatt-hours (energy). A site's peak kilowatts generally refers to when electric demand requirements are highest.

Demand: The level at which
 electricity is delivered to end-users at a given point in time. Electric demand in measured in kilowatts.

Direct Charges: Those charges directly attributable to a contract or job. They do not include operational expenses, such as overhead, G&A and taxes.

Direct Current (DC): The flow of electricity that flows continuously in one direction. Frequency - The number of cycles through which an alternating current moves in each second. Standard electric utility frequency in the United States is 60 cycles per second, or 60 Hertz (Hz).

Due Diligence: to a potential acquirer, due diligence means "making sure you get what you think you are paying for." This means doing your homework or examination on the offer or situation.

DUNS: Data Universal Numbering System.


Earnings/Share: The after-tax profit of a company divided by the issued and outstanding number of shares.
EBIDTA: Earnings Before Interest, Depreciation, Taxes, and Amorti-zation.

Economic Development Office: In USA, A county government office, with the responsibility for increasing county revenue from manufacturing, tourism, retirement and related business operations. There exists 3,140 such offices in the 50 USA states.

EE: Energy Efficiency: Improving efficiency by cutting energy use, improving quality, reducing downtime, and reducing waste streams.

EFD = Energy Finance District is a special district created by local government to raise funds to finance the installation of renewable energy systems and permanent energy-efficiency improvements. 
Funding for the improvements would be raised from public and/or private sources and loaned to the property owner. The loan would be repaid over a term of 15 to 20 years as an addition to ad valorem tax bill. If the property were to be sold, the new owner would assume repayment of the loan. Participation is voluntary.

Electric Grid: the electricity transmission and distribution system that links power plants to customers through high-power transmission line service.
A power transmission network is referred to as a "grid". Multiple redundant lines between points on the network are provided so that power can be routed from any power plant to any load center, through a variety of routes, based on the economics of the transmission path and the cost of power. 

Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (EEE): a broad term meant to include all electromagnetic interference or disturbance – unintentional or intentional, including, but not limited to EMI, EMP, HEMP, HPM, jamming,
Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP): an electromagnetic radiation from an upper atmospheric nuclear explosion that couples into all manner of cables and metallic objects. To test for compliance a field strength is developed at 50 kV/m having a rise time of 5 nanoseconds and a pulse duration of 150 nanoseconds.
Energy - The ability to do work; different forms of energy can be converted to other forms, but the total amount of energy remains the same.

Energy Audit:  A survey that shows how much energy used in a home, which helps find ways to use less energy.

EIA: Energy Information Administration: The U.S. EIA collects, analyzes, and disseminates independent and impartial energy information to promote sound policy making, efficient markets, and public under-standing of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment. 

Energy Information Administration
1000 Independence Ave, SW
Washington, DC 20585
National Energy Information Center
(general energy information)
(202) 586-8800
Technical Information
(202) 586-8959


Factory-Built (or manufactured) Homes: Inexpensive houses manufactured in plants in single wide (8 feet), double wide (16 ft) and triple wide (24 ft) widths from 10 ft. up to 70 ft. These can become the basis for the smaller sizes used for EMP protection with solar rooftops.  

Fixed Tilt Array: A photovoltaic array set  in a fixed angle with respect to horizontal


Geothermal Energy: energy derived from the warmer (or colder) temperature below the surface of the earth than the inside of the infrastructure being heated (or cooled).

GigaWatt = 1 GW = 1,000,000,000 Watts = 109 watts.
Global Warming: See greenhouse effect.

Greenhouse Effect: The carbon pollutants dumped in the air act like a carbon dioxide layer to trap the gases like a greenhouse, thereby warming the earth. 

Grid: see electric grid

Grid-Connected System:  A solar electric or photovoltaic (PV) system in which the PV array acts like a central generating plant, supplying power to the grid.

Gross Profit: Profit developed from sales in which only the direct charges are applied. This excludes operational expenses (overhead and G&A) and taxes.

                                   Terms and Definitions