Terms & Definitions H-R
HEMP: A High altitude Electro-magnetic Pulse generated from an upper atmospheric nuclear explo-sion. In military terminology, HEMP results from is a nuclear warhead detonated hundreds of kilometers above the Earth's surface. Effects of a HEMP device depend on a large number of factors, including the altitude of the detonation, energy yield, gamma-ray output, interac-tions with the earth's magnetic field, and electromagnetic shielding and protection of targets.
HEMP is usually described in terms of three components defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission, called E1, E2, and E3:
The E1 pulse is the very fast component of nuclear EMP. It is a brief but intense electromagnetic field that can quickly induce very high voltages in electrical conductors. The E1 component causes most of its damage by causing electrical breakdown voltages to be exceeded. E1 is the component that can destroy computers and communications equipment and it changes too quickly for ordinary lightning protectors to provide effective protection.
The E2 component is generated by scattered gamma rays and inelastic gammas produced by weapon neutrons. This E2 component is an "intermediate time" pulse that lasts from about 1 microsecond to 1 second after the beginning of the electromagnetic pulse. The E2 component of the pulse has many similarities to the EMP produced by lightning, although the electromagnetic pulse induced by a nearby lightning strike may be considerably larger than the E2 component of a nuclear EMP. Because of the similarities to lightning-caused pulses and the widespread use of lightning protection technology, the E2 pulse is generally considered to be the easiest to protect against.
The E3 component is very different from the other two major compo-nents of nuclear EMP. The E3 is a slow pulse, lasting tens to hundreds of seconds, that is caused by the nuclear detonation heaving the Earth's magnetic field out of the way, followed by the restoration of the mag-netic field to its natural place. The E3 component has similarities to a geo-magnetic stormflare. Like a geo-magnetic storm, E3 can produce geo-magnetically induced currents in long electrical conductors, which can then damage components such as power line transformers.
Because of the similarity between solar-induced geomagnetic storms and nuclear E3, it has become common to refer to solar-induced geomagnetic storms as "solar EMP." At ground level, however, "solar EMP" is not known to produce an E1 or E2 component.
Hertz: The unit of electromagnetic frequency that is equal to one cycle per second.
Hydroelectric: Electric power generated by turbines driven from the fall, passage or head of water.
Insulation: The solar power density incident on a surface of stated area and orientation. It is commonly expressed as average irradiance in watts per square meter (W/m2) or kilowatt-hours per square meter per day (kWh/(m2/day)) (or hours/day). In the case of photovoltaics it is commonly measured as kWh/(kWy) (kilowatt hours per kilowatt year, peak rating)
Interconnection: The linkage of transmission lines between two util-ities, or between a utility and an end-user, enabling power to be moved in either direction.
Inverters: Electrical devices used to convert low DC voltage from solar-PV cells or panels to higher AC voltages for direct use in homes and non-residential buildings.
IPO: Initial Public Offering: The first time that a private company has gone public by selling its registered securities.
Irradiance: The direct, diffuse, and reflected solar radiation that strikes a surface. Usually expressed in kilowatts per square meter.
Isolate: An acronym for Solar bright days, Site Latitude, and electric utility rates. Isolate scores applied to each US state will give a first, quick-look, rough measure of the viability of a proposed or existing solar rooftop installation performance, yet independent of the installation specifics. There are three main parts contributing to overall solar system installation performance:
(1) Location = site latitude, % bright solar days, and
electric utility rates
(2) Solar technology, mounting and roof configuration
Financial, prices, costs, subsidies, break even, P&L, cash flow and ROI.
Isolate score is a rough measure of the state site location in producing affordable solar energy. Its viability score is defined as:
Isolate = Sol x e x cos(lat) x N (3)
where, N is a normalizing/scaling constant and cosine of the latitude, rather than latitude, per SE, is used because that is the way the physics of the math model works.
ITC = Investment Tax Credit: The Fed Gov. offers an ITC to companies and homeowners who install Renewable Energy devices to increase affordability by effectively lower the price.
kilowatt (kW): 1,000 watts. A unit of measure of the amount of electricity needed to operate given equipment. For example, a one kW system is enough power to illuminate 10 light bulbs at 100 watts each. (volts x amps = watts). Or, a one kW system, if operating at full capacity for 5 hours will produce (or use) 5 kWh of electricity.
kWh = kilowatt hour, an energy term = 1 kW of electric power for one hour or X kW for 1/X hours, or any combination of power and time, yielding 1 kWh.
Mat-dirt Runway: A low-cost. packed dirt runway covered with steel matting for endurance and erosion control. It is usually 4,000 ft, in length, enough to accommo-date a 70-ton payload, Globemaster III cargo aircraft. It is primarily used in a post-EMP era for vitals replenishment.
Maximum Power Point (MPP): The point on the current-voltage (I-V) curve of a module under illumination, where the product of current and voltage is maximum. For a typical silicon cell, this is at about 0.45 volts.
MegaWatt = 1 MW = 1,000,000 Watts = 106 watts.
Meter: A device that measures
levels and volumes of customer's electricity use.
Million = 1,000,000 = 10^6
Moore's Law: A law of electronics technology made famous in an article in Electronics magazine in 1965 by Gordon L. Moore, who would later become the co-founder of Intel. Moore's law states that the number of transistors on an integrated circuit will double in less than 24 months, with corresponding decreases in the cost of electronics technology.
Mounting Equipment: Equipment/apparatus used to fasten solar (PV) modules to the roof.
Multicrystalline: A semiconductor (photovoltaic) material composed of variously oriented, small, individual crystals. Sometimes referred to as polycrystalline or semicrystalline.
NAIC: North American Industry Classification System.
National Electrical Code (NEC): Contains guidelines for all types of electrical installations. The 1984 and later editions of the NEC contain Article 690, "Solar Photo-voltaic Systems" which should be followed when installing a PV system.
Net Metering: "Net Metering" is the metering of electricity consumed from the electric utility grid and conversely, exported to the grid (the meter runs backward when excess solar electricity is fed back) by a home or business (office building)
One-Axis Tracking: A system capable of rotating about one axis used to track the sun's daily path in the sky.
Orientation: Placement with respect to the cardinal directions, North, South, East, West. Azimuth is the measure of orientation from north.
Peak Load - The highest electrical demand within a particular period of time.
Peak Sun Hours: The equivalent number of hours per day when solar irradiance averages 1,000 w/m2. For example, six peak sun hours means that the energy received during total daylight hours equals the energy that would have been received had the irradiance for six hours been 1,000 w/m2.
Photovoltaic Cell or Module or Panel: (PV) - A device that produces an electric reaction to light, thereby producing electricity.
Photovoltaic (PV) Array: An interconnected system of PV modules that function as a single electricity-producing unit. The modules are assembled as a discrete structure, with common support or mounting. In smaller systems, an array can consist of a single module.
Photovoltaic (PV) Conversion Efficiency: The ratio of the electric power produced by a photovoltaic device to the power of the sunlight incident on the device.
Polycrystalline Silicon A material used to make photovoltaic cells, which consist of many crystals unlike single-crystal silicon.
Power Factor of an AC electric power system is the ratio of the real power flowing to the load to the apparent power (assuming voltage and current are in phase), and is a number between 0 and 1, expressed as a percentage. When PF < 1, the electric utility must send more apparent power, thus, charging more than consumed. Hence, correct the power factor to appx. 100% to save money.
Rainwater Harvesting: Collecting and storing rain from structure roofs or other collectors for reuse other than processed for drinking.
Renewable Energy: Energy derived from that which will never run out, such as from wind, sun, rain, rivers, waterways, and heat from the earth, trees and vegetation.
Replenishment: The distance and time it tskes to replace exhausted or spent food, medications, fuel, broken or replaced parts, and other materials or parts to permit a continuing function of applicable buildings, devics, equipment, vehicles.
Revenue Streams: From product manufacturers and/ or service companies, on-going regular or periodic (e.g: monthly) sources and amounts of sales revenues.
● From carbon credits, such in “Cap and Trade” legislation
● From making business deals with utility companies, clients, & banks
● Continuing local, national international seminars
● Introducing new Trade publication(s) with paid ads.
● From/for municipality clients
● Maintenance and post expiration guarantee services
● Special EMP-mitigation hardware protects clients from catastrophic vulnerability of national electric grid.
ROI = Return on Investment:
Net moneys received above an invested sum. ROI = (total present value – original investment)/ (original investment).